Author Archives: jasonlmorrow

Privilege and Its Limits

boundaries-2After the destruction of Hurricane Katrina, a lot of talking heads said that the people deserved what they got because they knew the storm was coming but didn’t evacuate. What a lot of them didn’t realize is that many of the people didn’t have the means to leave, or anywhere to go if they did.

We’re often blind to our own advantages. Discussing privilege is necessary and important. Having someone point out your privilege is like having someone point out your blind spots. It provides context and, hopefully, compassion as we learn to walk in someone else’s shoes.

When the talking heads criticized the folks hurt by the hurricane, they were really just dismissing them out of hand, which is an important aspect of othering. When we dismiss others, we deny them any possible reasons or causes for their actions; if they behave differently than us, it’s because they’re just deficient.
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Feeling Like an Oppressor

10411828_10153046534021840_3436143187642342525_nRaise your hand if you feel like an oppressor.

…Did you raise your hand?

When you take a moral stance, on some level you’re accusing others of taking an immoral stance. When you fight for justice, it must mean some people are unjust. There’s not really a way around that unless you draw really vague boundaries.
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The Ethics of Second-Best Choices

Crossing out Plan A and writing Plan B on a blackboard.It’s not a perfect world. I’m reminded every day of my own imperfections. As I gossip at work when I know I shouldn’t. When someone is insulted and I don’t stick up for them, because I fear being thought of as difficult or a goody-goody, or I’m just too tired to bother.

The Pagan Activist blog exists because it’s such a deeply imperfect world. Acknowledging that is one of the first steps toward creating justice. People with a Candide attitude that we’re living in the most perfect world possible aren’t doing anything to make the world a better place.
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The Wisdom in Anger

AkshobhyaTo be an activist, very often, is to be angry.

An activist is a person with a sacred vision of the world that they are trying to manifest. That means living in a world that runs counter to what you hold most sacred. Otherwise, what are you acting for or against? And in my experience, activists aren’t just working for a world that would be nice, but fighting for the world that they believe should be. That’s not always emotionally easy.

And when you’re out there doing your work – whether that’s protesting, lobbying, leafleting, talking with your friends about the issues you care about – you’re basically dealing with people who disagree with you. They may be actively working against what you hold most sacred. That can be outright maddening.
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Nature’s Law and Our Relationship with Animals

demeterIt’s the harvest season and my garden seems to be slowing down. This has been my first season gardening and I’ve been thinking a lot about Demeter, the cycles of the Earth, and our place in all of that. In fact a good part of this post was inspired by a gardening comment I left on one of Michelle’s posts and conversations I’ve had about it.

In the comment I talk about the spiritual experience gardening has been for me, and since it’s a response to a blog about Pagans and food, I mentioned veganism. I really do think veganism is a logical extension of common Pagan values of non-harming, loving the Earth and our bodies, and love of liberty.
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The Ethics of Your Personal Journey

rider-Waite_The_hermit_large2Today I wanted to write about something I’ve seen a lot of lately. When you become a vegan – or a feminist, an environmentalist, an activist of any flavor – you start to notice things. You have interactions with people that you didn’t have before.

To be an activist, in a sense, is to step outside the bounds of what’s proper and try to push, pull, or encourage others to change. To be an activist, even when you’re silent, is to critique people. It’s not always going to be popular. Sometimes you’ll see sides of people that you didn’t see before. And you’ll have the opportunity to hear people’s justifications for their beliefs and actions. People who share the same mainstream beliefs don’t necessarily ask each other why they believe what they do. Minority status (which I’m using in the broadest sense) can offer a different perspective on majority culture.

What I’m seeing is a lot of people talking about their personal moral journeys.
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Selling Us Apathy

The other night I ordered a pizza from a popular chain. If you’ve read my other articles, you can probably guess that it was a vegan pizza. The website where I ordered it even had no cheese as a standard option. But the box they sent it in told a different story.

The top of the box named and pictured five cows. The company hailed them as their unsung heroes, calling them an important part of their team.

I guess they picked the wrong box for my cheeseless pizza.

It’s hard to read it with a non-vegan eye. Was I supposed to take the box seriously? Was I supposed to be moved to a newfound respect for cows’ importance in the web of pizza? What was the purpose of this?
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The Moral Circle

louseousjapanicasOne day at work I looked out the window to see a customer walking in. The blinds obscure a lot so I couldn’t see them very well, and I cocked my head left and right trying to figure out if it was a man or woman. After a moment a few things went through my mind: What if they don’t identify as male or female? What if they decide to go back to the car and I never find out? Why do I even care?

Evolutionary psychology is mostly educated guessery, but I think this is all part of a human need to assess any new situation. When we see a new person, we want to determine if they’re a threat, a potential ally, and so on. One of the simplest ways to do that is to see how they fit into certain pre-boxed categories, and this tells us what we think we need to know. And if they don’t fit into those categories, that might tell us something too.

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Cognitive Dissonance

Not-ListeningNo matter how good your ideas are, people may just not be listening. And it’s not really their fault.

The brain has a lot of work to do. Right now it’s processing signals from your eyes and constructing a conscious image of the world. It’s also scanning that information for signs of danger. If it sees any, it will trigger your fight or flight response and then deliver the danger message to your conscious mind. It’s taking in auditory and other sensory input. It’s building up a map of your body and its exact position in relation to other objects in the world and constantly updating this. It’s monitoring your body for any signals that something might be wrong. None of these things are simple. If you’re reading, you’re also constructing meaning out of text-symbols and engaging in abstract thought.

There’s only so much work it can do, and anything it can do to lighten its processing burden, it will do. Something it does not want to waste time on is revisiting things it already knows to be true or false. That’s why when you contradict someone’s beliefs, they tend to ignore you. The brain considers the matter settled. It doesn’t have time to reevaluate all of the thousands of facts it has accumulated on a daily basis.

Knowing this has helped me not take it too personally if someone doesn’t believe me about something, even if I’ve painstakingly researched it. It’s not necessarily a sign that the other person doesn’t like me, or that they’re particularly belligerent or willingly lying to themselves. It’s just that it takes a lot to convince the brain that it’s time to let go of old concepts.

It’s called cognitive dissonance when evidence conflicts with our beliefs. It’s really uncomfortable and the brain wants to end the dissonance. You can do that by examining the new evidence carefully and either changing the old belief or discarding the evidence as faulty. But more often we ignore the evidence. We say it’s untrue or irrelevant, rationalize it away, or just plain forget about it. Or, worse, we’ll dig in our heels and do more of what the person is hoping to talk us out of. And that’s true for the best of us.

I’m sure we’ve all run into cognitive dissonance in others. It may have seemed like stubbornness or hypocrisy. Maybe it’s Pagans who worship the Earth but don’t recycle. Maybe it’s people who passionately hate wolf hunts but eat cows. It’s a lot harder to see in ourselves, but I assure you, our brains are also trying to conserve time and processing power.

The cool thing is that knowing about cognitive dissonance can encourage us to take a moment and reflect before we toss out uncomfortable ideas. It can also help us take a breath when a friend, loved one, or a stranger on the internet ignores the world-changing information we’re trying to share with them. The brain doesn’t want its world to change. You have to give it a good enough reason to try, because cognitive dissonance really is painful. If your worldview has ever shifted you know how hard it can be.

Something to keep in mind is that the person doesn’t evaluate your evidence, decide you’re right, and then decide to keep believing something false. The evaluation never happens.

We’re even more likely to dig in our heels if someone contradicts a belief that’s important to us, or that challenges the way we view ourselves. This comes up all the time when discussing animal rights. Let’s say a person is really compassionate or loves animals. If you recommend veganism she may feel like you’re slighting her compassion, and now she’s no longer listening. And let’s face it, a lot of times we really are slighting her compassion. A lot of activists do this. I know I have. Have you?

That’s why shaming almost never works. We often use shaming tactics because we hope threatening a person’s self-image will motivate them to change, but it’s because self-image is so important that people resist.

Is it just me or does human communication often seem counter-intuitive?

Finding Their Motivation

I was vegetarian-leaning long before I became vegetarian, and later fully vegan. Nothing about my opinion towards animals changed. So what did? I turned 18 and then finished high school. I felt empowered to make my own choices. If people didn’t want to cook vegetarian for me, I was now in a place to do my own shopping and cooking. It was as simple as that. I didn’t feel powerful enough to act the way I wanted to act before. But that’s not what I told myself. I told myself we need to eat meat; that humans and animals have a sacred predator-prey relationship in the web of life; that my becoming vegetarian would never affect anything. For a while that litany was a constant meal-time ritual. Instead of saying grace over a meal, I made excuses.

So it’s not always immediately obvious why a person does what they do, even to themselves, or what they might not like about your suggestions. I wanted to be vegetarian since I was 14. When I was 17 and started hanging out with vegetarian friends at the Theosophical Society, I told them I admired vegetarianism but could never handle the commitment. Within a year I had made that commitment, have kept it for over 13 years, and intend to continue. I didn’t talk myself into it. I didn’t have an awakening – I’d already had that when I was 14. I simply felt ready. So maybe sometimes that’s the way you’ll be able to help someone who’s going through cognitive dissonance. They may already agree with you to some extent, but need help feeling up to the challenge.

Other than a few accidents or a few slip-ups as I was transitioning, I haven’t eaten meat since I became vegetarian or animal secretions since I became vegan. But I sure do eat a lot of corn chips. And ramen, candy, soda. As it turns out, it was pretty easy to structure my life around compassion for others, or to put it another way, around duty. Turns out, I’m not as willing to do it for my own health. I felt great when I was briefly eating by the Eat to Live diet, a diet low in fat and salt and centered around leafy greens. But my own health wasn’t enough to motivate me.

Maybe what I need to do is reframe the way I view my own health. Remind myself that the more energy I feel, the more good work I can do in the world. The more fun I can have with friends and family. Make it relevant to what’s important to me, not what seems like should be important on paper.

So maybe your passion is recycling. Someone you’re talking to may not really be concerned about plastic going into landfills. After all, covered-over landfills are kind of cool. They don’t look toxic; they’re big hills that you can stand on and survey the surrounding land. They have pipes spouting fire. Fire! But maybe this person is really into efficiency, and you can point out the inefficiency of constantly grabbing new resources when the ones we already have can be reused but are getting tossed in the dump. Maybe they’d care about the damage done when extracting new resources, and how reusing could prevent some of that.
It comes down to knowing your audience. I’m not suggesting you sit down and give them a litany of reasons to do whatever it is you want them to do. No one wants to sit through that. You have to know the person you’re talking to and what motivates them. Unless of course you have a blog, or a book, or some other platform and can explore these things in their own segments.

Since I find I’m most willing to do things out of a sense of duty, it helps to remember my larger goals and think of smaller things as part of them, as duties. Other people might benefit from thinking in terms of bringing a sacred vision of the world into being, like Starhawk suggests. They might be inspired by the goal of personal excellence, being their best self, or helping others be their best selves.

If you’re trying to reframe your own passions in a way that appeals to others, it’s important to still have a genuine conversation instead of a canned speech. Something else you can do is actually listen to them if they bring up objections or counter-points. Sure, you may have heard the objections a thousand times, but they weren’t there for all that. You’re expecting them to sit and listen to what’s important to you, have an open mind, and be convinced by the evidence. All while they might quite passionately disagree with you or have some strong other reason not to listen. Will you do them the same courtesy?

When someone behaves in a way that we find abhorrent, it’s so easy to conclude that they don’t have any values. But people do have values. (Even sociopaths value themselves, but that’s an academic point. I’m not suggesting we can get through to everyone). Whatever worldview you’re trying to promote might be completely relevant to their values, but since your values are different, you might never have seen it that way. It’s a good opportunity to see things from a fresh perspective.

In other posts I’ve mentioned that I kind of hate that humans don’t just calculate what’s best and then do that. I resent that we have to find out people’s motivations, engage their passions instead of presenting a topic in symbolic logic. Then I remember that I talked myself out of what I thought was right for four years. My initial reason for going vegetarian, and then finally feeling powerful enough to do it four years later, was entirely emotional. And as Sam Harris points out in his book The Moral Landscape, to be convinced by logic, we have to emotionally value logic. We’re emotional creatures and I’m learning to accept and embrace that. That acceptance, including an acceptance of cognitive dissonance, has made me much more at peace as an activist. Instead of resenting human nature I can work with it. I’m not as angry all the time.

Embracing some facts about human nature – that we all make decisions emotionally, that we have values even if we seem belligerent or rude, that we want to do the best we can but might have some obstacles in our way – helps me come from a place of love and service instead of judgment. And as I’ve said before, I think people can really hear that in your voice and in your writing. I’ve also accepted my own foibles and that I need to renew my commitment sometimes. To veganism, by watching videos of animal agriculture that are emotionally hard to watch. To helping people be their best selves, by listening to psychology podcasts and writing blogs like these. Sometimes there’s nothing so inspiring as a deadline!

Speaking of deadlines, when you have an activist conversation with someone, do you expect change instantaneously? I had been 18 for some months before I went vegetarian. Heck, I’d wanted to do it for four whole years. Sometimes people need more time to let it sink in, more time to contemplate it, more time to deal with cognitive dissonance. Getting inappropriately mad or judgmental isn’t likely to motivate them, at least not in the direction you want. Do you want to be an inspiration or a task-master? You don’t have to support x behavior, but you can respect someone and how hard change can be.

If you’re an animal advocate, you probably didn’t just suddenly start loving animals one day. You probably loved them for years, and that love blossomed into veganism – probably vegetarianism first. I liken this to a Buddhist teacher’s thoughts on relationships I learned in an episode of the Interdependence Project podcast. This teaching says that in a relationship, it’s not truly love until about ten years into it. Before that point you may like them, and you may love the way the way they make you feel, but that’s not the same as loving them. I agree, but I am still perfectly comfortable calling it love much earlier. Why? Because there are many types of love. A younger love may still be very self-involved. It might not be unconditional yet. But it can still be something wonderful and important to you.

Telling someone, “You don’t really love your spouse yet,” is insulting. Telling them, “Just wait. If you work at it, it gets even better – more committed, more about the other person and less about you,” isn’t an insult. So if you’re vegan and tell your friends, “You must not really love your cat because you eat cows,” it’s not going to accomplish very much. But it’s not an insult to say their love for animals could use some deepening. Couldn’t all love use some deepening?


Cognitive Dissonance


An Animal-Friendly Ostara

As I write this, Ostara is right around the corner. For those who celebrate Ostara, Easter, or similar festivals, here are some ways you can make your celebrations friendlier for the animals.
How to Have a Vegan Easter

Wrong Turns and Inspiration

367254_4774Recently I took a road trip to the Smokey Mountains with a group of friends. On our way back to the cabin after sightseeing the driver said, “Oh is this the street?” and made a wrong turn. Another friend in the back seat started to berate him for about five minutes. Which is actually quite a lot if you’re on the receiving end, or stuck in the car listening to it. He probably felt justified in the rant because the driver should have known better.

I’ve realized I do that to my mom all the time when she has technology problems. Not a five minute tirade, but essentially the same thing. Not to my grandma, but to Mom because she should “know better.” Then I feel guilty, because I guess I feel I should know better too.

The essence of my friend’s car tirade was, “You made a wrong turn and are therefore stupid and disgusting.” He never said those words, and probably would deny that he meant it that way. But isn’t that often how we feel when we’re on a rant? The person who did the Wrong Thing is despicable. We would never have done such an inferior thing ourselves.

As activists, do you do this? I’ve been guilty of it, and I see it all the time in well-meaning friends. How do we handle it when someone doesn’t immediately get our message and jump on board? When activists get together, in person or online, are our discussions about how to inspire people or about how stupid the people who don’t get it are? The people we might be vilifying are the very people we need to help us if we want to bring our visions of the world into reality. Why would this convince anyone to listen to what we have to say?

This Imbolc I’ve been thinking about the goddess Brigid and her inspiration. Like my friend the backseat driver, I could handle being a little more inspiring and a bit less of a know-it-all.

Remember that you’re talking to a person

Here’s a secret. A lot of vegans judge their vegan-ness, or their worth as an activist, by how many people they convert to veganism. And hey, isn’t that why we’re doing activism? To get people to listen? And I know it’s true of other activists too. But let me make an analogy.

I hold to the philosophy of eudaimonism. Among other things, it means that a person’s goal in life is to flourish – to be happy, content, and virtuous. There are lots of similar philosophies around the world, including Buddhism, that say the most important thing in life is happiness.  People that follow such philosophies, which I think pretty much everyone does consciously or unconsciously, will naturally try to build a life that’s as happy as possible.

The problem is, that can also be a trap. If every time you contemplate an action, you do a mental calculation about how much pleasure it will give you, it sucks the life out of life. It’s just too clinical. I can’t experience something deeply if I’m constantly evaluating it and thinking “what’s it doing for me?” Friends are an important part of a happy life, but thinking of your friends as happiness-makers for yourself doesn’t make for deep friendships. It’s probably not good for their happiness either, and if we’re ethical hedonists instead of selfish ones, the happiness of others is important to us too.

That’s why my advice, and the advice of a lot of people before me, is to develop qualities and traits that lead toward happiness, but not be thinking about it every day. Take stock every so often and think about what will make you happy. Decide some things you could do – make more or better friends, meditate, be kinder, go on more adventures. Then when you’re doing those things, forget about trying to be happy and just engage with life.

It’s sort of like trying to write a blog of a certain length, and constantly counting the words. It gets in the way. Hard to really get into it. I’m speaking theoretically of course.

I’m starting to view activism the same way. The desire to share your message can be a deep principle that informs your choices, but it can’t be at the front of your mind all the time. Of course we want people to jump on board our causes. We wouldn’t be activists if we didn’t want that. But when you talk with your friends, are you really talking to your friends or to potential converts?

I’ve noticed I have much happier friends when I share with them my story, my reasons for being vegan, and awesome vegan food, than when I preach the Good News About Tofu to them. Something I learned from animal rights activist Colleen Patrick-Goudreau is that we’re at our best when we share things with our friends rather than trying to educate them. It can be subtle, but there’s a big difference between “I read this and it changed my life” and “You should read this; it’ll change your life.”

Remember to talk like a person, too

It’s all about having genuine human interactions. People can generally sense when you’re trying to guide the conversation somewhere, making a rehearsed speech, or perhaps worst of all, telling them what to do. Just be yourself and don’t try to be the perfect activist.

There have been so many times when people have asked me why I’m vegan and I’ve panicked. I don’t have the perfect speech planned, I’m in a bad mood, I assume they’re going to judge me or All Vegans Everywhere for my answer, or whatever reason. When I’m uncomfortable talking about it, that’s probably pretty obvious. When I give a little speech or a pat answer, that’s probably just as obvious.

If I can sum up my new approach, it’s about offering instead of instructing. It’s about engaging one’s audience as if they’re people, not automatons awaiting programming. Because people aren’t waiting around to hear your message about how they need to live their lives. It’s about realizing they’re not just an audience in the first place. Thinking of them as an audience, while technically true, makes everything all about you, and makes your friends into passive recipients of your wisdom.

Sometimes activism can just be about telling stories, especially your story when it’s appropriate.

It doesn’t always have to be about a list of the benefits of your position, or a rapsheet of the sins and dangers of the opposing political party/corporations/philosophy. People will respond to your story, to your passion, to you as a person, more than they might respond to a list of the pros and cons of your position. But you should have that too, because it’s generally not a good idea to have a lot of excitement and nothing to back it up.

People can really tell if you’re joyful about your way of life or if you’re angry and sitting in judgment. Maybe it shouldn’t matter; the message is the message regardless of who delivers it or the tone of voice they use to do it, but that’s not really realistic. A lot of people respond to pathos first and logos second. Their response to you will decide if they’re open to hearing what you have to say.

So I’m choosing to be inspiring, and to be inspiring I have to be inspired. If I want people to really hear me, I can’t be vegan just because being non-vegan causes a lot of harm to humans, other animals, and the environment. I have to be vegan because it’s awesome to live a life based on compassion. And that can apply to just about any cause where we want to inspire people to see things differently.

I’ll leave you with a challenge. Look at your relationships, your social media use, maybe even your bumper stickers. Do you spend more time ranting than encouraging? Do people tend to pull away when you talk about the causes that are important to you? (Keep in mind that that will happen anyway).Do you find yourself instructing more than sharing? Are there ways you could engage people more through stories and your passion for your sacred work?